Research Insights: What Are the Effects of Cash Transfer Programs on Vulnerable Middle-Income Households?

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Mar 2023
Monthly cash transfers delivered to vulnerable middle-income households in Colombia increase per capita income, but the effects on spending appear small and related to nonfood spending. Cash transfers have a large impact when beneficiary households experience severe economic shocks, suggesting lack of insurance as a major constraint affecting non-poor but vulnerable households. By encouraging the adoption of digital saving accounts, the program also increased access to formal credit.