Innovation and Competitiveness in Mining Value Chains in Latin America
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This paper provides an international overview of the mining global value chain (GVC) and its most recent transformations and trends, focusing on Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. The study uses international trade data and patent and scientific publications data. By using trade in value added, we first investigate the role of those countries in the international mining trade, and their specialization, participation, and position in the mining GVC for the period 2005-15. The analysis is carried out for both mining products and mining-related services, and also looks at the contribution of services to mining exports. Second, we analyze the evolution of innovative activity and the direction of technological change in the mining sector over the past 40 years by looking at patent applications, both internationally and with attention to the three target countries. We also provide an overview of, and some insights on, knowledge flow in the mining sector based on scientific production.