Learning from Productive Development Agencies in Brazil: Policies for Technological Innovation
This paper presents and comparatively analyzes three case studies of productive development agencies (PDAs) in Brazil: Embrapa, Finep, and ABC Foundation. Following a discussion of the main hypotheses and the methodology employed, the paper describes each case, the related counterfactual and an analysis of each PDA's capabilities. A subsequent section presents a comparative analysis of the PDAs, studying: i) the use of hybrid forms to assemble complementary capabilities: short-run effects on technological policy; ii) the effect of strategic alliances on building capabilities and dynamic effects; and iii) how industry structure and innovation should affect PDAs' strategies. Finally, the paper presents conclusions, summarizing results, methodological shortcomings and policy implications.